This guide is designed to assist you in finding resources related to History. It includes channels for finding books, journal articles, newspapers, and other primary sources. If you're having trouble or simply wish to consult further about your topic, please don't hesitate to email me at email@example.com.
Primary sources are "materials produced by people or groups directly involved in the event or topic under consideration, either as participants or as witnesses...Some primary sources are written documents, such as letters; diaries; newspapers and magazine articles; speeches; autobiographies; treatises; census data; and marriage, birth, and death registers" (Rampolla, 2012).
Secondary sources, then, are "texts - such as books, articles, or documentary films - that are written or created by people who were not eyewitnesses to the events or period in question; instead, the authors of secondary sources synthesize, analyze, and interpret primary sources..."(Rampolla, 2012).
A library catalog lists the resources in the library's collections--including interlibrary loan holdings. You can search for information by author, title, subject, and keyword.
Bibliographies and indexes are essentially specialized catalogs that helps searchers find specialized material, e.g. from a specific field (MLA International Bibliography), format (US Newsstream for newspapers), or particular publication (e.g. Wall Street Journal Index).
Peer-review is a sort of quality assurance process in the publication of academic and scholarly articles. This graphic diagrams the process:
(Attribution: Anup Kumar Das, https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Peer-Review-Process_fig1_274007791)
The following steps provide an effective strategy for conducting efficient and accurate library research.
STEP 1 - SELECT YOUR TOPIC
Before you can do any research, you need to be clear about what you are researching. A helpful way to clarify your topic is to state your topic in the form of a question.
Example Question: What effect does alcohol abuse have on college students?
Don't worry about being too general, you will refine your topic later.
STEP 2 - IDENTIFY KEYWORDS THAT DESCRIBE YOUR TOPIC
Make a list of words and terms that describe your topic. To this list add synonyms of those words and other terms related to your topic.
Example Keywords: alcohol abuse, college students
Example Related Words: alcoholism, binge drinking, young adults
This is a very important step because almost all your subsequent research will involve entering these words into various search engines (e.g. the library catalog to find books, a research database to find a journal article).
STEP 3 - FIND BACKGROUND INFORMATION
Begin your search with printed or online encyclopedias such as Credo Reference or Britannica Online, using the key words and related words that you identified as search terms in Steps 1 and 2. Articles in encyclopedias and similar sources will help you refine your topic. Note any relevant references to books, articles, and other information in the bibliographies at the end of the encyclopedia articles. You may want to use them in your research.
STEP 4 - USE AN ONLINE CATALOG TO FIND BOOKS
Using words that describe your topic (Identified in Steps 1 and 2 above), do a Keyword search to find books relevant to your topic in the library's online catalog. Once you find appropriate materials, note the citation (author, title, etc.), call number, location, and circulation status of the book.
STEP 5 - USE RESEARCH DATABASES TO FIND JOURNAL ARTICLES
Consult a research database like Academic Search Complete to find articles on your topic. Some search results will include the full text of the article. If the full text is not included, please use Journal Finder to see if the full text is available in the library or in another research database.
If the full text is not available, you may hope to use the library's Interlibrary Loan (ILL) Service to borrow books or obtain copies of articles not available at ECSU.
STEP 6 - EVALUATE WHAT YOU FIND
Evaluate the authority and quality of the materials you have located. Consider the author, publisher, and date of each resource. Is the material comprehensive? Is it biased? Who is the intended audience?
Is the article peer-reviewed or from a scholarly journal? A scholarly journal has all of its articles reviewed by panel of experts in the field before the articles are published. Peer-reviewed articles are the "Gold Standard" of academic research. Answering the following questions will help you identify a peer-reviewed article.
Is the author of the article listed near the beginning of the article?
Is the journal in which the article published named?
Is there an abstract of the article available in the database? An abstract is a one paragraph description of the contents of the article.
Does the article have an extensive bibliography (not just a couple of citations)?
If the answer to these questions is 'Yes', the article is probably peer-reviewed.
STEP 7 - REVIEW YOUR PROGRESS
After you have completed the previous steps, examine the information you have collected. Ask yourself the following questions.
Does it answer the topic question you posed in Step 1?
Is your topic question too general?
Does it need to be more specific?
Do you need more information about any aspect of your topic?
After you answer these questions, return to Step 1 and repeat the process. (You may be able to skip Step 3 Find Background Information.)
REMEMBER TO ASK A LIBRARIAN FOR HELP IF YOU NEED IT!
Librarians are here to help you with your research. Librarians know the resources the Library has and are eager to assist students.